Archive for the ‘travel’ Tag

Commonwealth Building, Portland, Oregon

Downtown Portland is full of generic structures sprouting all over, but has a few standouts. Arguably the most innovative building downtown is the Commonwealth Building (formerly the Equitable Building) located on 6th Avenue between Washington and Stark. It’s a shiny smooth skyscraper with limited prominence in the skyline, that yields little information about its age. It could be brand new, but was in fact completed in 1948, a young looking 70 years. Designed by Pietro Belluschi, much of the innovation of the building is unseen, and it remains a rather unknown structure long overshadowed by better known buildings in New York like Lever House. The building was given National Register status in 1976, a rare distinction as it was only 28 years old at the time.

It’s a National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark for its technical innovations. Among them are central AC, double pane windows and an aluminum facade. The aluminum facade would later be used in other Midcentury skyscrapers like the Alcoa Building in Pittsburgh while the greenish glass would be a signature element in landmarks such as Lever House in New York and the Inland Steel Building in Chicago.

For the most part, the building has been sensitively modified, mostly to the entrances. Despite the apparent uniformity of the facade, the 6th Avenue and Stark St. elevations are slightly different. The window panes are subdivided into three sections along Stark, two along 6th. Subtle colors keep the facade lively, while the skin of the building is nearly smooth, as no section protrudes out more than 7/8″.

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Commonwealth (Equitable) Building, 1948.

 

 

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Poets Row, Denver, Colorado

I came across this very nifty corner of Denver as I was wandering around the city last weekend, taking advantage of the holiday weekend and balmy 70 F temperatures. Normally I just change planes in the airport, but this time I spent a day exploring downtown and the neighborhoods northeast and southeast.

Poets Row refers to a National Register-listed block of apartment buildings directly south of the State Capitol, on Sherman Street between 10th and 11th. These were mostly built in the 1930s and 1940s and together they form a harmonious group of Art Deco, Moderne, and International Style structures that have seen new life as residents have returned to the central city over the past 20 years. They’re named after famous writers, not really poets. The buildings are nothing fancy or luxurious, but are notable for being an intact row of apartments that gives a glimpse into city living 70 years ago. Aside from the view of the skyscrapers downtown, this is a virtually unchanged streetscape, and a wonder that it survived all these years without being torn down or otherwise defaced.

Downhill, a couple blocks away, are the distinctive buildings of the Denver Art Museum- the Daniel Liebeskind building is the most recognized, but I have to say that the fortress-like Gio Ponti structure (1971) really caught my attention. This is Ponti’s only US design, and I haven’t decided whether I love it or hate it. I don’t think it really fits the location so close to the Capitol and City Hall, and it’s an unavoidable structure that barely resembles a museum. I thought it was a jail, like the one in downtown Chicago.

Mark Twain Apartments

Thomas Carlyle Apartments

Dorset House, understated International / Moderne style

Denver Art Museum, Gio Ponti (1971)

Summer of 14ers, 2017

Well, I burned out on them this year. It was inevitable, as I had hiked more than 35 of them solo, and I got increasingly tired of the driving. So I did still manage to add a few new ones to my list, and repeated several of them on new routes. Overall, it was a good, although not as enjoyable, summer. I still got in plenty of eye candy, exercise, and experience.

My season started with a hike of a still snowy Quandary Peak in mid-June. I wasn’t intending on summiting, and hiked this one up barefoot to around the 13400′ line, and turned around there since it was snowy from there on up.

The following week I hiked the Bierstadt / Sawtooth / Evans combo. I had been up Bierstadt before, and had driven up Evans previously. This one reminded me of how out of shape I was, and my energy level went to near zero after passing the Sawtooth section. Now this was a pretty spectacular hike, a bit exposed and loose in places, but the route was fairly clear, and I was luckily with a small group. I don’t recommend it on your own, though. I also ended up hitching back to Georgetown from the summit of Evans, as I was completely spent and cold from the wind. Good thing, too, as I could avoid the swampy mess in the lower part of Bierstadt. This hike was also notable in that I hiked up Bierstadt barefoot, and it’s an excellent trail. The muddy and wet section at the beginning was manageable, and the remainder of the trail was pretty smooth going. It’s fairly gentle on the feet, even though I still crossed a few small patches of snow. Not bad, check one off my list!

I also repeated Yale, this time on the far less traveled East Ridge route. It’s a fairly straightforward trail up to the saddle, then a sharp left turn and up along a poorly marked trail the rest of the way. It’s really no problem routefinding, but there were a few longer snowfields around some of the subpeaks that slowed me down. We descended via the standard route. My previous hike of Yale was on a rather foggy day, so this time around I managed to actually see my surroundings and the view was pretty good.

Up next was Mount of the Holy Cross, which was honestly one of the better peaks in this rather dull range. It’s way out there, just a few miles south of I-70, and hidden from view. Access on the road is limited, it doesn’t open until late June, and it’s a rough but passable road that goes by the Tigiwon structures, then dead ends at a crowded parking lot. This one saw plenty of traffic, and it’s a pretty hike from beginning to end, just don’t miss the sharp right turn that you need to make on the way back down. Also, save your energy for the 900 feet of ascent required to get out of the canyon on the way back. I took my time and it’s pretty manageable. I caught it on a warm, perfect day.

Mt. Harvard was my Sawatch finisher. I was denied this peak last October due to snow, cold temperatures, and exhaustion, missing the summit by a few hundred feet and a quarter mile via the Columbia traverse. This time I just hiked the standard trail, which is clear up to the last 200 feet or so. It’s a bit of boulder hopping from that point on, but there’s plenty of traffic and help in that short section. This was my debut hike in Chacos, which didn’t quite agree with my feet. It’s also 14 miles long, so no wonder it wasn’t so enjoyable.

The last “easy” peak on my list was San Luis, and I have to admit that I rather enjoyed this one, hiking the southern approach via the Creede side. It turned out to be somewhat longer than I thought, since I couldn’t make it all the way to the official trailhead, and made a few detours en route to joining the Colorado Trail. Most of the hike is on the Colorado Trail as it approaches the peak in slow motion, winding around one basin after another before hitting the ridgeline. It was scenic, very quiet, with plenty of green, lots of wildflowers, and real serenity. This one clocked out at 18 miles round-trip, another punishing outing in Chacos. They didn’t really break in much!

I spent a couple weeks on business trips in July and August, and returned to hike Wilson Peak. It’s relatively short, but has a rather exposed, challenging end. This was real scrambling, with real consequences. I felt this was harder than its neighbor, El Diente, that I hiked the previous summer, although El Diente had more routefinding. The trail to Wilson Peak from Rock of Ages trailhead is essentially two old mining roads that were joined together, and that quickly brings you to the 13200′ mark. After that, it’s much slower going, with a faint trail to another saddle, and then the real stuff starts. It’s mostly okay up until the false summit, and then it’s a thrilling 200′ to the real peak. Have you heard of this peak? Probably not, but it’s on every can of Coors Light and stands proudly apart from the other peaks in that region. Incidentally, the view featured on that beer can is what you see from Telluride ski area.

I also had one failed summit, which was this awful slog up Ellingwood Point. The clouds turned me back around 13500′, which was a real bummer especially after hiking from my parking spot at 7700′. I probably could have made it up if I had parked a bit higher at 8000′, and that would have saved me two miles of walking. I think that really left a sour taste in my mouth, as I spent nearly 11 hours on Lake Como Road, which isn’t the most scenic or calm way to get up there.

Notably, I made a few changes to my footwear choice this season. Yes, I hiked a 14er barefoot, and have been conditioning my feet to deal with more and more difficult terrain, so it’s a part of my hiking repertoire. Of course it’s not practical for a lot of hikes. My old trail running shoes have more or less crumbled after 30+ 14ers, and I’ve switched to a pair of approach shoes that have been irritating to my Achilles for some reason. So with that in mind, I also did a few of these hikes in Chacos, those rather distinct, heavy, indestructible sandals that seem to work in every kind of condition. I ended up hiking Harvard, San Luis, and part of Wilson Peak in those sandals, and yes, they work pretty well. My feet aren’t yet used to them, even though I’ve done probably at least 50 miles to try to break them in.

Hopefully next summer my energy and desire will return, as my remaining 14ers are the difficult ones, in the Elks, San Juans, and Sangres.

Sao Paulo, September 2016

A flashback to a year ago, when I took advantage of Brazil’s visa waiver during the summer months of 2016, and made a trip to South America. . .

I had the chance to explore the major cities of Rio de Janeiro, Brasilia, and Sao Paulo, each of them with their own distinctive personality. Rio has its famous beaches with big city flair and tension, Brasilia is world-famous for the Niemeyer design and its successes and failures as an urban environment, and then there’s Sao Paulo. It’s exactly what you would expect of a metropolitan area of more than 20 million people, in a country defined by people coming from all corners of the world. It’s drab, and you can’t really tell which direction you’re looking, since there are skyscrapers extending forever everywhere you look. That’s probably the defining feature of Sao Paulo, lots of concrete. The city is not pretty, but it works and works and works. The center is a frenetic place much like New York or Tokyo, unflinchingly commercial, with horrendous traffic, too busy to be unsafe, with a population proud of the chaos. Rio this isn’t.

The endless Sao Paulo cityscape

About a mile from the center is the financial and commercial heart of Brazil, Avenida Paulista. It’s the city’s showcase, a clean, wide boulevard lined with innovative skyscrapers and high end shops. On Sundays it’s closed off to traffic, and turns into an informal stage and catwalk, with bands playing concerts, rollerbladers, families out for a walk, Mormon missionaries, political protests, and an endless circus of personalities. The city does take a day off on occasion.

Oscar Niemeyer’s Edificio Copan (1952-1966), now draped in this ugly blue covering after pieces of the building started falling off

Pickup football game, downtown Sao Paulo

Sunday on Avenida Paulista, with its distinctive skyscrapers

Protest against President Michel Temer. I visited shortly after the impeachment and removal of Dilma Rousseff from office.

To really explore would take a lifetime, just like the other megacities I’ve visited. But I really liked what I saw, and hope to see the city more in depth next time I get to visit.

 

 

Des Moines Art Center

A distinguished group of architects contributed to this medium-sized art museum in the Midwest, which includes additions by I.M. Pei (1968) and Richard Meier (1985). But I’ll concentrate on the original structure, one of Eliel Saarinen’s later designs, completed in 1948. This building has the signatures of Eliel Saarinen’s buildings, warm stone, and an undefinable style. It’s not Art Moderne, or Art Deco, or Art Nouveau, or International Style, but is uniquely Saarinen Sr. For those of you who have visited Cranbrook or his churches, this one stands out as an Eliel Saarinen building. The exterior is Lannon limestone, quarried next door in Wisconsin, alternately rough-cut and smooth, with careful attention to detail. His sweeping lines and calculated asymmetry are evident here, as are the protruding bricks interrupting the horizontality, lending a subtle three-dimensionality to the exterior walls. So he manages to achieve an understated, yet individual result.  The use of decoration is minimized, instead the textures of the stone become the basis of decoration. The entryway is a masterly series of gentle curves that draws the visitor inside, emphasized by the sparse use of horizontal lines around the vestibule. Like all of Saarinen’s structures, the refinement and quality is really appreciated with a closer, rather than cursory, look.

Front entrance, a mix of glass, smooth stone, and brickwork

Another view of the main entryway

Courtyard entrance detail

Courtyard, with Pei (left) and Meier (right) additions

 

White Sands National Monument

A bit of natural scenery for a change. In a rather desolate corner of New Mexico lies one of the most photogenic spots in North America, White Sands National Monument. It’s a unique sand composition, being water soluble gypsum which is a brilliant, eye-burning white color. The other big sand-based national monument / park lies several hundred miles north on the west side of the Sangres, Great Sand Dunes National Monument.

Both depend on water. Since White Sands lies in a basin with no outlet, any moisture interacting with the gypsum pretty much goes straight into the ground, or is dried out by the hot weather. Great Sand Dunes is a bit different, with the sand being carried by the nearby river downstream away from the Sangres, and winds blowing the sand back towards the mountains and depositing the sands in the dunes.

White Sands is open in the daytime with extended hours during the full moon. I caught one of these full moon evenings and it’s really spectacular. I also hiked out to the flats in a 5 mile loop. Photographing here is a bit tricky, actually, as really small grains of sand muck up the camera sensors and deposit all sorts of tiny particles on the lenses.

Textures

More textures

Still more textures!

Sunset over White Sands

 

Christ Church Lutheran, Minneapolis

So everyone is familiar in some way with Eero Saarinen, as his structures are ingrained into the American built environment. His Gateway Arch became the instant symbol of St. Louis upon its completion in the 1960s, and chances are that you have changed planes at Dulles Airport or JFK Airport.

His father, Eliel Saarinen, is less well-known, and has a style all his own which is difficult to pinpoint. Eliel is best known for his “losing” design for the Chicago Tribune skyscraper, which became an oft-imitated model for the tall building and is now seen in 1920s skyscrapers such as the Gulf Building in Houston and the David Stott Building in Detroit. He created a number of seminal structures that manage to fly under the radar, they’re all carefully designed and executed buildings, but understated. They are however recognizable as Saarinen buildings, especially in his use of tan brick. He

designed two religious structures during his US-based career, two similar, radical designs for modern churches. One is in Columbus, Indiana, completed in 1942, and the other is Christ Church Lutheran in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Christ Church Lutheran was Eliel Saarinen’s last structure, completed in 1949, he died in 1950.

The exterior is of a simple geometry, with little in the way of decoration. A few sparse sculptural elements adorn the main facade, with some relief elements such as a cross on the side. The interior is a real treasure, with a narrow vertical window providing the illumination for the altar. Composed of white brick, the altar glows. While the exterior is a simple box, the interior adds a few elements of subtle, but noticeable asymmetry. The roof line is slightly slanted, the wall of the altar curves, and there is extra seating under a low ceiling. The brick walls wave in and out upon close inspection. Light comes in from side windows. In short, there is plenty of visual interest inside, but it requires close inspection to really appreciate the design elements. The overall effect is one of calmness.

Christ Church Lutheran, tower and detail of relief

Saarinen Sr. on the left, with the Saarinen Jr. extension on the right

Eero Saarinen, in one of his last works before his untimely death in 1961, designed the extension, which defers to his father’s design elements, and created a low-key, functional structure. The two buildings are linked through interior hallways and underground passages, creating a courtyard with a fountain in the center. This fountain led to leakage into the basement, necessitating an ongoing restoration effort. Right now, the courtyard is a mess with plenty of construction (as of May 2017), but the finished product ought to be similar to how the structure looked before.

Interior, from second floor balcony

Interior from first floor

Brasilia, September 2016

This is of course Brazil’s capital, built in the center of the country, but the middle of nowhere, in a relatively short span in the 1950s, and officially inaugurated in 1960. The plan is obvious from the air as you approach the airport, shaped like a bird, or a drawn bow and arrow, with a spine of government structures spanning about a mile, and numerous structures designed by Oscar Niemeyer. It was recognized with World Heritage status in 1987.

It’s a decent, but long day trip from Sao Paulo or Rio de Janeiro, with frequent and reasonably priced flights. I was based in Rio, and it’s advisable to use a departure from the centrally located Santos Dumont Airport (SDU), instead of the much further Galeao Airport (GIG). I picked a 6 AM departure from SDU, a quick and inexpensive taxi ride, but ended up returning to GIG, which made for a rather long, 90 minute return bus trip to my hotel in Copacabana. It’s a 90 minute flight over a pretty barren landscape that gives you an appreciation for the task involved in building a new federal capital from scratch sixty years ago, and sprouting a city of now 3 million inhabitants.

There’s a bus that stops just outside the terminal in Brasilia, which will drop you off at the major sites downtown. It’s a 20 minute ride, and I got off at the Tres Poderes (three powers), which is surrounded by Niemeyer’s signature buildings. This fairly small area is home to Brazil’s version of the Capitol, the White House, and the Supreme Court, all within about 500 m or each other. They’re also the best structures in town. I took the free tour of Congress, which was impressive, it’s the building with the skyscraper in the middle and the two domes. The interior is also very nice, with a cool collection of mid-century furniture and art and a sophisticated feel. Nearby is the presidential palace, the supreme court, and the foreign ministry. Behind it is a cluster of 1980s structures by Niemeyer, which are crumbling.

National Congress building

National Congress building (1960)

Itamaraty Palace (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)

Itamaraty Palace, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1970)

I walked west, about a mile towards the cathedral. It’s not that large, and a pretty cheerful space, with a gleaming white interior and lots of stained glass. I liked it, while the building next door, the museum, was a crumbling UFO. Way further afield, another mile away, is the Santuario Dom Bosco, completed in 1970, which is pretty unexceptional from the outside, but is a winner inside, bathed in light shining through blue and purple stained glass.

Interior, Brasilia Cathedral

Interior, Brasilia Cathedral (1970)

Interior, Don Bosco Chapel

Interior, Don Bosco Chapel (1970)

Niemeyer’s buildings elicit a visceral response. You can’t doubt the imagination that went into them, but I get this feeling that he forgot the human scale in Brasilia. It’s a bold plan on paper or in a model, but doesn’t quite work in reality. Now overall, the city comes across as being pretty sterile, with little pedestrian traffic, few places to sit and enjoy the view, and vast exposed empty spaces that are hard to maintain. Despite some very nice religious structures scattered around the city, it’s reminiscent of some of the places in the old Eastern Bloc that I’ve been to, like Chisinau. The main axis is a bit like Washington’s Mall, but with much less character, less vegetation, and really grim buildings and ministries lining the road. It’s also a very pedestrian-unfriendly city, the address system is nearly impossible for a first-time visitor to decipher, and the main social centers seem to be shopping malls. I took lunch in a mall food court after nearly starving, dodging a few six lane highways, and creepy stretches of concrete jungle to find an unmarked Brutalist structure that actually had people inside.

The living areas are way in the periphery, with a large slum on the western outskirts, while the original 1950s / 1960s living quarters are in generally good shape and wealthy areas, with a few of them carefully preserving Niemeyer’s intentions. Interspersed between the apartment buildings (located in these so-called Superquadras or superblocks) are lots of greenery and a small commercial zone every few blocks. It’s hard to imagine these really getting lots of street life, but they seem to have a decent selection of restaurants and markets. Downtown there’s very little in terms of services.

Restored apartment building

Restored apartment building

Typical  neighborhood commercial stretch

Typical neighborhood commercial stretch

A word about safety, since this is on the minds of most visitors to Brazil- Brasilia is quite safe, I didn’t worry about carrying my DSLR around and taking lots of photographs, unlike in Rio and Sao Paulo.

Downtown Detroit, 2016

A brief business trip brought me back to Detroit for the first time in a couple of years. While a wide swath of the city is rapidly disappearing, the high density stretch downtown to Midtown is regaining some of the hustle and bustle of years past. I don’t think the city will ever reach its postwar peak of 1.8 million again, but downtown is pretty stable, the demolitions have stopped, and work is underway on the new arena in anticipation of the move of the Red Wings and the return of the Pistons. I happened upon one of the free tours of the glorious art deco Guardian Building, which offers a detailed look at the jazzy, exuberant exterior and then takes in the view from the top floor, a rare view of Detroit from above that most visitors miss. Even with the unfortunate demolitions of numerous buildings starting in the 1970s, it’s a rich collection of early skyscrapers which thankfully won’t be going anywhere anytime soon. There’s lots of buzz downtown, with renovations, adaptive reuse, and residential conversions. The pre-Depression era skyscrapers are outstanding, mixed in with high quality mid-century designs that have stood the test of time. The skyline has changed little in 50 years, and here’s a few pictures of the blocks around the Guardian Building.

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Nice detail on the facade of the Ford Building (Daniel Burnham, 1909)

 

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The vaulted lobby of the Guardian Building (Wirt Rowland, 1929), decorated with Pewabic tile. It’s hard to imagine that this lobby once featured a dropped ceiling that hid all of this tilework, before a 2003 renovation set things right!

 

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And from Hart Plaza, Minoru Yamasaki’s elegant One Woodward (1963), and Johnson and Burgee’s postmodern One Detroit Center (1992), framed by the sculpture Transcending (2003).

 

Buhl Building (Wirt Rowland, 1925), entryway

The Romanesque entryway of the Buhl Building (Wirt Rowland, 1925). Yup, same designer as the Guardian across the street, completely different style.

 

A few Brazil basics

I visited Brazil for the first time a couple weeks ago, spending time in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Brasilia. I came between the Olympics and the Paralympics, and in the middle of the impeachment turmoil. The usual visa regulations were suspended between June 1 and September 18. This made traveling to Brazil quite convenient, as getting a visa is rather cumbersome, in addition to the $160 visa cost. So with that amount of money saved, I took a flight directly to Rio and shuttled back and forth between Rio, Sao Paulo, and Brasilia, before flying out of Sao Paulo.

So this post will cover a few of those typical questions for first-time visitors to the country. I had my share of concerns and honestly a bit of trepidation over the safety aspect of the large cities, since this tends to be the first question that potential visitors ask. I’ve also heard my share of horror stories, but hey, I heard the same sort of stuff about visiting Detroit.

Is it safe? That’s probably the first question, as sadly, it seems like the first association people make when one mentions Rio is crime, and not the beaches, or Sugarloaf, or Christ the Redeemer. That said, I had no problems. It’s worth considering that despite all one hears about the dangers in Rio and Sao Paulo, they are busy and very large cities where millions of people go about their daily lives without problems. That said, there is an edgy feel in central Rio and Sao Paulo that takes some time feeling comfortable in. It reminded me of New York in the  days of the 1990s, where I still felt quite safe, despite a surge of violent crime. Brasilia had a slightly creepy feel in the hotel zone, as it was a Sunday when I visited, and many of the businesses were closed and the streets deserted. While the warning about central Rio on weekends should be heeded, I found the main streets of Copacabana to be pretty safe day and night- I did drag around a bunch of luggage and laptop bag while I was searching for my hotel. There are also lots of people walking around, eating out, drinking, etc. Ipanema felt much more upscale, as did Av. Paulista in Sao Paulo.

Arriving in Brazil. The main international airports in Rio (Tom Jobim Galeao, GIG) and Sao Paulo (Guarulhos, GRU) are pretty far from the city centers, but they’re the main international points of entry into Brazil. It is often a better idea to arrive at the smaller domestic airports, Santos Dumont (SDU) in central Rio, or Congonhas (CGH) in Sao Paulo, these smaller airports are centrally located and well-linked to the international gateway airports. Getting into town, I took the airport bus from Galeao, which goes to the main hotel zones in Copacabana and Ipanema. It’s cheap compared to a taxi, but it will take you 90 minutes to get to Copacabana, and you will need to know roughly where to get off. A good point of reference is the large, fancy Copacabana Palace Hotel which is a few short blocks after the highway emerges at the beach following the last tunnel.

From Guarulhos, I opted for the official taxi when I had my luggage, (150 Reais, or around $46 USD one way to Paulista), but if you’re traveling light, the bus 257 / subway combo is a real bargain (around $3.50 round-trip) and takes about 45-60 minutes to get to downtown. Note that the bus only stops at Terminals 1 and 2, and not the new Terminal 3, which handles many of the foreign carriers. There is a free shuttle between the terminals. The bus goes as far as the Tatuape subway station, which is 5-7 stops from the city center region. Luggage storage is available at Terminal 2, located between the East and West sectors. Lockers are 40 Reais per 24 hours, manned storage is 30 Reais.

Getting around. The taxis are generally honest and go by the meter, or by fixed price from the airport. They are also the preferred way of transport after dark, there are tons of them, and it’s safe to hail them on the street. The subway systems in Rio and Sao Paulo are excellent, and will get you around the main areas frequented by visitors.

I took the city bus from Av. Paulista to Congonhas Airport, and I don’t recommend this option, even if it’s cheap. It takes more than an hour to go the five mile route, it’s often standing room only, and you need to really keep your eyes open to get off at the right place! Take a taxi instead.

Going further afield, domestic flights are relatively cheap, with very frequent flights between Rio and Sao Paulo (~120 flights a day!), and security procedures are rather lax. It’s a convenient, and in many ways, necessary way of getting around a very large country, and an enjoyable experience. You even get a decent snack on the short flights.

Photography. Now I was a bit paranoid about hauling around an SLR camera, so I stuck to cell phone pictures for the most part, and used the SLR when I was part of a group or a tour (the Free Walking Tour of Sao Paulo is recommended). I also used the SLR at places requiring admission (Sugarloaf, Sao Paulo Museum of Art, the Martinelli Building). I did pull out the SLR on a Sunday afternoon walking around Av. Paulista, as there were lots of photographers out and about documenting a protest against the President. Perhaps this was a bit too much precaution, but I still managed to get in plenty of photo opportunities. Carry your camera equipment in a backpack. If you’re on a favela tour, follow your guide’s instructions and tips on etiquette.

More on Brasilia, Rio, and Sao Paulo later.