Archive for the ‘architecture’ Tag

Christ Church Lutheran, Minneapolis

So everyone is familiar in some way with Eero Saarinen, as his structures are ingrained into the American built environment. His Gateway Arch became the instant symbol of St. Louis upon its completion in the 1960s, and chances are that you have changed planes at Dulles Airport or JFK Airport.

His father, Eliel Saarinen, is less well-known, and has a style all his own which is difficult to pinpoint. Eliel is best known for his “losing” design for the Chicago Tribune skyscraper, which became an oft-imitated model for the tall building and is now seen in 1920s skyscrapers such as the Gulf Building in Houston and the David Stott Building in Detroit. He created a number of seminal structures that manage to fly under the radar, they’re all carefully designed and executed buildings, but understated. They are however recognizable as Saarinen buildings, especially in his use of tan brick. He

designed two religious structures during his US-based career, two similar, radical designs for modern churches. One is in Columbus, Indiana, completed in 1942, and the other is Christ Church Lutheran in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Christ Church Lutheran was Eliel Saarinen’s last structure, completed in 1949, he died in 1950.

The exterior is of a simple geometry, with little in the way of decoration. A few sparse sculptural elements adorn the main facade, with some relief elements such as a cross on the side. The interior is a real treasure, with a narrow vertical window providing the illumination for the altar. Composed of white brick, the altar glows. While the exterior is a simple box, the interior adds a few elements of subtle, but noticeable asymmetry. The roof line is slightly slanted, the wall of the altar curves, and there is extra seating under a low ceiling. The brick walls wave in and out upon close inspection. Light comes in from side windows. In short, there is plenty of visual interest inside, but it requires close inspection to really appreciate the design elements. The overall effect is one of calmness.

Christ Church Lutheran, tower and detail of relief

Saarinen Sr. on the left, with the Saarinen Jr. extension on the right

Eero Saarinen, in one of his last works before his untimely death in 1961, designed the extension, which defers to his father’s design elements, and created a low-key, functional structure. The two buildings are linked through interior hallways and underground passages, creating a courtyard with a fountain in the center. This fountain led to leakage into the basement, necessitating an ongoing restoration effort. Right now, the courtyard is a mess with plenty of construction (as of May 2017), but the finished product ought to be similar to how the structure looked before.

Interior, from second floor balcony

Interior from first floor

Montevideo, Uruguay

I managed to squeeze in a quick trip to Uruguay’s capital, which seems to be what most visitors see of Montevideo. Uruguay is a country that’s fallen off the map, and not necessarily in a bad way. As one of the smallest independent states in South America, it’s sandwiched between Brazil and Argentina, and the capital is a mellow, safe place situated about 100 miles east of the much larger Argentine capital, Buenos Aires. In fact, it’s one of the quietest capitals in Latin America, with none of the heavy traffic, loud blaring music, frenetic pace, or safety concerns of the larger cities. The Uruguayans will remind you, tango probably started in Uruguay, and the first World Cup did go to the Uruguayans.

That said, I took the impressively fast boat from a rainy, dark, Buenos Aires. It was a scene of controlled chaos with a long lineup for tickets, check-in, Argentine and Uruguayan immigration and customs, all at the Buquebus terminal at the old port. The ferry got to Montevideo in less than three hours, and I walked the last couple of miles from the port towards downtown. It’s laid out on a grid pattern that sort of follows the contours of the peninsula, interspersed with leafy squares every 300 meters or so that don’t really conform to the grids. The buildings are generally not new, but rather a mix of early 20th century structures and a few midcentury buildings squeezed in there, looking a bit dowdy and worn. Like the United States, South America has been a hotbed of immigration, with lots of Europeans coming in the 19th and 20th century, with another wave around World War II. And like Buenos Aires, Montevideo feels like a distant outpost of Europe.

The country today is known for its steaks, architects, tango, and liberal social policies. This has made it one of the most successful stories in South America, despite its low profile. But with a total population less than the city of Los Angeles, it’s not hard to see why. Even the main government center is delightfully accessible, you can just walk into the main ministries and even the building where the president works.

Overall, it was a quiet, but chilly day walking around, and it’s a pleasant, if not terribly exciting place. Probably part of it has to do with being late winter (I visited in September), and it’s considerably more lively once the weather warms up. The food is pretty meat and potatoes heavy, and I treated myself to a steak dinner in the market district near the port. This happened to be the only place that would accept my ATM card, since I was without any substantial cash during nearly all of my vacation.

So here’s a few pictures from Montevideo.

Plaza Independencia, Montevideo

Avenida 18 de Julio, the main commercial artery of the city

Mindcentury wacko architecture downtown

I guess this is street art about football!

Brasilia, September 2016

This is of course Brazil’s capital, built in the center of the country, but the middle of nowhere, in a relatively short span in the 1950s, and officially inaugurated in 1960. The plan is obvious from the air as you approach the airport, shaped like a bird, or a drawn bow and arrow, with a spine of government structures spanning about a mile, and numerous structures designed by Oscar Niemeyer. It was recognized with World Heritage status in 1987.

It’s a decent, but long day trip from Sao Paulo or Rio de Janeiro, with frequent and reasonably priced flights. I was based in Rio, and it’s advisable to use a departure from the centrally located Santos Dumont Airport (SDU), instead of the much further Galeao Airport (GIG). I picked a 6 AM departure from SDU, a quick and inexpensive taxi ride, but ended up returning to GIG, which made for a rather long, 90 minute return bus trip to my hotel in Copacabana. It’s a 90 minute flight over a pretty barren landscape that gives you an appreciation for the task involved in building a new federal capital from scratch sixty years ago, and sprouting a city of now 3 million inhabitants.

There’s a bus that stops just outside the terminal in Brasilia, which will drop you off at the major sites downtown. It’s a 20 minute ride, and I got off at the Tres Poderes (three powers), which is surrounded by Niemeyer’s signature buildings. This fairly small area is home to Brazil’s version of the Capitol, the White House, and the Supreme Court, all within about 500 m or each other. They’re also the best structures in town. I took the free tour of Congress, which was impressive, it’s the building with the skyscraper in the middle and the two domes. The interior is also very nice, with a cool collection of mid-century furniture and art and a sophisticated feel. Nearby is the presidential palace, the supreme court, and the foreign ministry. Behind it is a cluster of 1980s structures by Niemeyer, which are crumbling.

National Congress building

National Congress building (1960)

Itamaraty Palace (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)

Itamaraty Palace, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1970)

I walked west, about a mile towards the cathedral. It’s not that large, and a pretty cheerful space, with a gleaming white interior and lots of stained glass. I liked it, while the building next door, the museum, was a crumbling UFO. Way further afield, another mile away, is the Santuario Dom Bosco, completed in 1970, which is pretty unexceptional from the outside, but is a winner inside, bathed in light shining through blue and purple stained glass.

Interior, Brasilia Cathedral

Interior, Brasilia Cathedral (1970)

Interior, Don Bosco Chapel

Interior, Don Bosco Chapel (1970)

Niemeyer’s buildings elicit a visceral response. You can’t doubt the imagination that went into them, but I get this feeling that he forgot the human scale in Brasilia. It’s a bold plan on paper or in a model, but doesn’t quite work in reality. Now overall, the city comes across as being pretty sterile, with little pedestrian traffic, few places to sit and enjoy the view, and vast exposed empty spaces that are hard to maintain. Despite some very nice religious structures scattered around the city, it’s reminiscent of some of the places in the old Eastern Bloc that I’ve been to, like Chisinau. The main axis is a bit like Washington’s Mall, but with much less character, less vegetation, and really grim buildings and ministries lining the road. It’s also a very pedestrian-unfriendly city, the address system is nearly impossible for a first-time visitor to decipher, and the main social centers seem to be shopping malls. I took lunch in a mall food court after nearly starving, dodging a few six lane highways, and creepy stretches of concrete jungle to find an unmarked Brutalist structure that actually had people inside.

The living areas are way in the periphery, with a large slum on the western outskirts, while the original 1950s / 1960s living quarters are in generally good shape and wealthy areas, with a few of them carefully preserving Niemeyer’s intentions. Interspersed between the apartment buildings (located in these so-called Superquadras or superblocks) are lots of greenery and a small commercial zone every few blocks. It’s hard to imagine these really getting lots of street life, but they seem to have a decent selection of restaurants and markets. Downtown there’s very little in terms of services.

Restored apartment building

Restored apartment building

Typical  neighborhood commercial stretch

Typical neighborhood commercial stretch

A word about safety, since this is on the minds of most visitors to Brazil- Brasilia is quite safe, I didn’t worry about carrying my DSLR around and taking lots of photographs, unlike in Rio and Sao Paulo.

Downtown Detroit, 2016

A brief business trip brought me back to Detroit for the first time in a couple of years. While a wide swath of the city is rapidly disappearing, the high density stretch downtown to Midtown is regaining some of the hustle and bustle of years past. I don’t think the city will ever reach its postwar peak of 1.8 million again, but downtown is pretty stable, the demolitions have stopped, and work is underway on the new arena in anticipation of the move of the Red Wings and the return of the Pistons. I happened upon one of the free tours of the glorious art deco Guardian Building, which offers a detailed look at the jazzy, exuberant exterior and then takes in the view from the top floor, a rare view of Detroit from above that most visitors miss. Even with the unfortunate demolitions of numerous buildings starting in the 1970s, it’s a rich collection of early skyscrapers which thankfully won’t be going anywhere anytime soon. There’s lots of buzz downtown, with renovations, adaptive reuse, and residential conversions. The pre-Depression era skyscrapers are outstanding, mixed in with high quality mid-century designs that have stood the test of time. The skyline has changed little in 50 years, and here’s a few pictures of the blocks around the Guardian Building.

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Nice detail on the facade of the Ford Building (Daniel Burnham, 1909)

 

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The vaulted lobby of the Guardian Building (Wirt Rowland, 1929), decorated with Pewabic tile. It’s hard to imagine that this lobby once featured a dropped ceiling that hid all of this tilework, before a 2003 renovation set things right!

 

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And from Hart Plaza, Minoru Yamasaki’s elegant One Woodward (1963), and Johnson and Burgee’s postmodern One Detroit Center (1992), framed by the sculpture Transcending (2003).

 

Buhl Building (Wirt Rowland, 1925), entryway

The Romanesque entryway of the Buhl Building (Wirt Rowland, 1925). Yup, same designer as the Guardian across the street, completely different style.

 

Condesa Art Deco, Mexico City

Mexico City is a new, old favorite destination of mine, at least as far as cities go. I first visited 20 years ago, and was surprised and delighted by the chaos and vitality. This was in the bad old days of the 1990s, when the city was seemingly on the edge of oblivion, with 20+ million souls living at a mile and a half above sea level, a place badly damaged by the 1985 earthquake, hopelessly polluted, sinking like Venice in the spongy lake bed, and high in crime. I visited during one of the volcano Popocatepetl’s eruptions, the mountain casually spouting ash and smoke 40 miles east of the city, nearly lost in the haze that blanketed the city.

I’ve returned twice since then, in the space of a few months. Mexico City has changed much over the past decade, becoming cleaner, sporting bike lanes, cutting edge, world-class food, audacious new architecture, while still being an inexpensive place to visit. It’s actually quite close to the Four Corners, and a fun place to go for a long weekend. That said, it’s so vast that you can’t really see a whole lot in a weekend. It’s probably going to be one of those places that I go to regularly, like LA, where I feel familiar enough that I can visit a different section each time and see something new each time. The UNESCO-listed historic center (Centro Historico) is still my favorite part of town, with these austere, tilting structures of dark red and gray volcanic stone that have survived every natural and political calamity over the past 400 years. To this day it’s still the commercial and political heart of the city, and the entire nation. The central square, Zocalo, is the epicenter of Mexico, a space of gigantic proportions much like Red Square is to Moscow, or Tiananmen Square is to Beijing.

About three miles southwest is a neighborhood called Condesa, developed in the 1930s, which was badly damaged in the 1985 earthquake and fell into obscurity until about ten years ago, when it underwent a major resurgence. Now it’s the yuppie / trendy / gay center of town, cosmopolitan, featuring a mix of new architecture mixed in with many Art Deco buildings in various states of repair. It’s also one of those few places in city that’s actually green, with a couple of large parks that make it a pleasant place to hang out, day and night. Despite the incessant traffic on the main streets, it looks like a great place to live.

There are also some buildings by the Pritzker laureate Luis Barragan, who’s work seems to be neglected in Mexico despite his fame worldwide. I took a tour of his works scattered throughout the city, and for the most part, they really slip under the radar. His house and studio is a must-see for architecture buffs, located a mile beyond Condesa in Tacubaya. So here’s a sampling of the buildings and streetscapes of Condesa.

Houses by Luis Barragan, Avenida Mexico 141-143

Houses by Luis Barragan, Avenida Mexico 141-143

Art Deco house, Condesa

Art Deco house, Condesa

Edificio San Martin, Avenida Mexico 167

Edificio San Martin, Avenida Mexico 167

Edificio Tehuacan, Avenida Mexico 188

Edificio Tehuacan, Avenida Mexico 188

Shigeru Ban’s Aspen Art Museum

Located in downtown Aspen, this building and the museum’s collection is a real treat to visit. It’s quite small, with three floors of exhibits, no permanent collection, and very friendly staff that approach you to ask whether you have any questions about the art being shown. They’re also very enamored of the building, which was designed by 2014 Pritzker laureate Shigeru Ban, and opened in August 2014.

The most noticeable part of the building is the wood-weave exterior that graces the two streetfronts, providing the visitor peeks at the mountain and town surroundings. Between the exterior and the interior of the building is a grand staircase that is echoed in the interior, divided by a glass partition. Essentially it’s an in-between space, “engawa” is the Japanese term for it, and the grand stair unites the outside and inside of the structure.

Ban also elaborates on the woven wood theme in the roof elements, which are elegantly curved wood trusses that are easily missed. You’ll need to look up at the ceiling while you’re walking the grand staircase, or check out the rooftop terrace skylights to see the trusses. He also blends in the interior and exterior space very cleverly on the top floor, where a small outdoor sculpture garden merges seamlessly into the indoor / outdoor cafe, and then the interior staircase leading to the exhibition levels. It’s also an unusual feature in Aspen to have a rooftop view, affording a unique, although not so spectacular perspective on the surrounding urban scene.

The sidewalk in front of the entrance is also turned into a plaza, with a few trees, benches, and a reflective sculpture. The architect designed this space to de-intimidate the experience of visiting a museum. So this is very different from the grand urban museums (like the Met, British Museum, etc.).

Ban is known for his use of recycled materials and for his temporary structures. This museum is no different, with a wall built out of recycled tubes, and this becomes a prime decorative element.

Best of all, it’s free, which is something rarely experienced in Aspen.

Aspen Art Museum facade, with the plaza in front

Aspen Art Museum facade, with the plaza in front

Front entrance, wood weave detail

Front entrance, wood weave detail

Wood roof structure, over the grand staircase

Wood roof structure, over the grand staircase

Weekend in Quito, Ecuador

I don’t recommend just a long weekend visiting South America, but I’m pretty short on vacation days. So I jumped on a cheap-ish fare, and flew to the high altitude capital of Ecuador, Quito, or more accurately San Francisco de Quito. I’m no longer used to long flights, and being squeezed into the back of a plane, on American Airlines, with a plane full of high schoolers, is tough to tolerate. In any case, the plane was delayed by a swarm of bees bugging the baggage handlers, and I didn’t arrive at my hotel until 1 AM, rather irritated.

It’s a very new airport, but situated a very long distance, and a $26 taxi ride, from the city center where I stayed. Stepping off a plane in a foreign country is always a thrill, as your senses are heightened, and you notice nearly everything regardless of how tired and disoriented you are. I noticed the cool mountain air, at 2850 m, the city never gets that hot, and it’s always sweater or light jacket weather in the evenings. The ride went along a very new, modern freeway, past the usual commercial zones resembling anywhere in the US, first heading south, then turning west and curving around several canyons and heading nearly 2000 feet uphill to the city. I was finally oriented by the lighted statue of Panecillo towering over the old town, and sighted the whitewashed and slightly run-down structures of the city center. The very hilly terrain was reminiscent of the other San Francisco (California), just add nearly 3000 m and a lot of mountains.

I essentially had two days to explore, and spent the first day walking and exercising hard just going up and down the steep streets and stairways. Ecuador is a very convenient country to visit for people from the US; the US dollar is the official currency, and it’s easy to track how much you’re spending. As for the prices, I found it to be slightly more expensive than Mexico City, for food at least. Lunches ran about $4-6 for the set course meals (almuerzos), museums were about $2, and of course, walking around was free. It’s still loud, noisy, and full of commercial activity, but easily an order of magnitude less chaotic than Mexico City. The city center is compact, situated on a grid, and definitely human scale. The population must be in fantastic physical shape, climbing all those hills and mountains at nearly 3000 m.

San Francisco church and convent

San Francisco church and convent

Old Town from the Basilica

Old Town from the Basilica

UNESCO recognized Quito’s old town as one of the first cultural World Heritage Sites in 1978, along with Krakow. To this day, it’s almost completely intact despite numerous earthquakes, and architecturally homogeneous. The churches are some of the most magnificent I’ve seen, with very fancy gilded interiors reminiscent of the Baroque churches in Rome, but with lots of Spanish / Moroccan / Islamic elements and designs. The style is unique. The exteriors are generally severe and solid, probably reflecting the seismic powderkeg of the surrounding region, but the courtyards are peaceful, lush zones away from the noise of the city. Another highlight was exploring the roof of the cathedral, which involved a very tight squeeze up a claustrophobic spiral stairway, and ended with a great view of the tiled domes and the plaza down below. The bad news is that many of the churches will charge you money to enter, so it’s easy to burn through cash here.

The heart of it all, Plaza Grande and the Presidential Palace from the roof of Quito Cathedral

The heart of it all, Plaza Grande and the Presidential Palace from the roof of Quito Cathedral

Speaking of mountains, I headed up the Teleferiqo on Sunday (a $5-7 taxi ride from the old town). This cable car goes up the side of Pichincha, to 3935 m. I got up early and hunted around for an honest taxi (the ones with a camera in the front seat), and ended up walking nearly a mile before getting into one. The taxi circled around the southern traffic belt, through several tunnels, and climbed steeply uphill to the lower cable car station. The weather was cooperating, even though the weather forecast said it would start raining at 10 AM. But well, the forecasts are always generally right, and usually wrong on the details. I lucked out, but wasted no time in starting hiking once at the top station. My goal was the summit of Rucu Pichincha, which was a moderately strenuous, 3 mile (5.8 km) hike that topped out at an incredible 15380′ (4690 m). The elevation gain was just short of 2500′, and the trail was busy on this beautiful Sunday morning. Most of it was a regular hiking trail / dirt road, then a trail with a few scrambling spots and washed out areas, then a scramble up a loose sandy slope, turning into a Class 3 climb for the last 50 m or so. Nice and spicy, and hey, I’ve never been at this altitude before. But I didn’t really feel it, maybe it was the slightly thicker air from being near the equator, but it felt more like the equivalent of 13000′ in Colorado. I felt surprisingly good at the top, and the view was fantastic with all the civilization sprawling below and crawling up the sides of the Andes foothills. The bonus was the view of the nearby volcanoes slowly being enveloped by clouds, Cotopaxi’s symmetric cone, the broken summits of Iliniza Norte and Iliniza Sur just to the southeast, and Antisana, and Cayambe to the northeast. These peaks break the 5000 m mark, and being nearly that high, I had to believe that I could probably physically handle that little extra altitude. Exciting. By the time I got back to the cable car station, the summit was completely socked in with plenty of rain. The city is not known for sunny weather, and more often than not, it’s four seasons every day.

Cotopaxi and Iliniza Norte / Sur from the summit of Rucu Pichincha, along with all that civilization below

Cotopaxi and Iliniza Norte / Sur from the summit of Rucu Pichincha, along with all that civilization below

And more Quito, 2.7 million inhabitants

And more Quito, 2.7 million inhabitants

The other nifty thing was the vegetation, and there was plenty of it even at 15000′. The snow line doesn’t really start until around 16000′, compared with a 12000′ treeline in Colorado, and 6000′ at Mt. Hood. Every ecological zone is represented in Ecuador, with 20000′ of elevation difference in a country the size of Nevada. It’s amazing biodiversity.

Plant life at 15000 feet, this stuff feels like astroturf

Plant life at 15000 feet, this stuff feels like astroturf

But alas, I had to catch the red eye back to the States and be at work in the morning. I definitely wasn’t looking forward to that, but what a fun little trip!

 

 

Across LA: Olympic Boulevard

Each year the Great Los Angeles Walk picks a crosstown major arterial, and in November 2015 it was Olympic Boulevard. So walk 16 miles across a city reputed for being pedestrian unfriendly? Why not? I spent many weekends in LA in 2015, exploring the bridges, the hidden sidewalks, the stairways, and got a new appreciation for a city I’ve always loved.

So I met up with a rather large crowd at the recently renovated, kitschy Clifton’s Cafeteria on Broadway, which opened an hour early just for this event. And after some introductory remarks, we were off. The route was initially south on Broadway, then a jog over to Main Street and Olympic, and then it was due west for a good 7-8 hours until we met up with the beach at Santa Monica. Like many of the main arterials, Olympic is a slice of the ethnic diversity of the city, much of it felt in the first 3 miles of the route where it’s a spectacular collision of Korea and Latin America, visually stimulating and chaotic. The rest of it is less interesting, passing through the rather pedestrian-unfriendly Century City and a few historic neighborhoods and HPOZ (historic preservation overlay zones) near Beverly Hills. The stretch within Beverly Hills is extensive, but is a world away from the Beverly Hills that is seen on TV and in the movies- it’s the middle-class, unexceptional side of the city, and mostly residential. The demographic is mostly upscale after Koreatown, including neighborhoods like Rancho Park, Country Club Park, and Santa Monica.

I was one of the slower ones, stopping at a friend’s house to chat, then stopping for a leisurely lunch at the legendary Tom Bergin’s about midway through the walk.

A good way to start the walk, beautiful blue skies and morning light on the Eastern Columbia building on Broadway

A good way to start the walk, beautiful blue skies and morning light on the Eastern Columbia building on Broadway

Clifton's Cafeteria on Broadway, recently and beautifully restored

Clifton’s Cafeteria on Broadway, recently and beautifully restored

Commercial chaos, Olympic and Western

Commercial chaos, Olympic and Western

Persian flavor, Westside

Persian flavor, Westside

Helios House, the future of the gas station!

Helios House, the future of the gas station! Olympic and Robertson

Century Plaza Towers, Minoru Yamasaki (1975)

Century Plaza Towers, Minoru Yamasaki (1975)

Well, most of the crowd did not make it all the way back to the beach, I got there just after sunset, my legs and feet sore from a crazy walk across town. Never done it before, can’t wait to do it again, there’s no better way to explore the City of Angels.

Santa Monica, fading daylight, are we there yet?

Santa Monica, fading daylight, are we there yet?

Last days of the Sixth Street Bridge, Los Angeles

I visited LA quite a bit in 2015, spending many happy days wandering around the diverse neighborhoods and landscapes of the city. The Sixth Street Viaduct, generally called the Sixth Street Bridge, was the doomed landmark that I spent plenty of time up close and personal. My last visit was New Years weekend, 2016, which was supposed to be the final weekend it would be open to traffic. It turned out that the closure was delayed by a couple weeks longer, but it was essentially the bridge’s last stand, showing all the battering, use, abuse, and love of its 83 years.

There really was no way to save the bridge. The disrepair and decay of the concrete really showed, and it was continuing to deteriorate. Had the concrete not been faulty, perhaps it would have lasted longer. But despite the loss of this landmark, the replacement bridge is a thoughtful nod to the old one, and will be LA’s newest showpiece when it’s completed.

Sixth Street Bridge and the downtown skyline, January 2, 2016. A now-lost view.

Sixth Street Bridge and the downtown skyline, January 2, 2016. A now-lost view.

A bit of calm along the river. The scene was actually pretty busy, with a steady stream of cars, visitors, and photographers.

A bit of calm along the river. The scene was actually pretty busy, with a steady stream of cars, visitors, and photographers.

That bit of elegance among the drabness of the industrial flats.

That bit of elegance among the drabness of the industrial flats.

And a bit of abstraction. . .

Walking back to Santa Fe Avenue, goodbye!

Architecture of Snowbird, Utah

I’ve been to Snowbird a handful of times, and aside from the amazing terrain, powder snow, and views, I was very interested in the buildings scattered around the base and the mountain. These are period pieces in classic Brutalist style, conceived in the mid-1960s and completed in the 1970s. Despite the seeming mismatch of lots and lots of concrete and wood, they strangely fit into the landscape, avoiding the often unexceptional, derivative nature of architecture at ski areas. Now architecture is normally not what one thinks of when going skiing, but I had to pause and explore some of these buildings in closer detail and loved what I saw.

I’ll also say a bit about the snow, my visit was timed with a moderate snowfall, with up to 6 inches accumulating overnight, and since some areas were closed until the avalanche danger eased, there were plenty of fresh tracks to be found. The crowds were minimal, despite being on a weekend, and there was no waiting in lines. The weather even cooperated on my second day there, as the sun came out. It’s a steep mountain, with lots of high speed lifts, and I probably got nearly 20000 meters of vertical over the course of two days. Fun! Incidentally, I purchased a Mountain Collective pass, which has been a good investment this year, especially now that the snow returned to the West.

The Road to Provo from the summit of Hidden Peak.

The Road to Provo from the summit of Hidden Peak.

The buildings are Brutalist, with no attempt at hiding the modernist roots and the architecture in vogue in the 1960s and 1970s. They reminded me of Louis Kahn, with the blend of concrete and wood, but are mixed in with plenty of dark, reflective glass. The master plan was completed in 1966, and the buildings were completed between 1971 and 1973, designed by Enteleki, Architecture, Planning, Research, and Brixen and Christopher architects (closed 2016).

The best building is probably the mid-mountain lodge, designed to withstand the elements, but also graced with wood beams that blend with the trees, and plenty of windows that allow for views of the mountains. Designed by Enteleki and completed in 1971, it looks clearly 1970s in the color scheme, but has weathered the 45 years very well. The entrance is a bit awkward though, with a ground level entrance splitting the lower level in half, and stairs lead up to the lodge level.

Mid-mountain lodge, harmonious.

Mid-mountain lodge, harmonious.

The base tram terminal shoots out of the ground like a church, but is a simply designed, logical structure that expresses exactly what it does. It’s unadorned form following function.

Lower tram terminal, with the Cliff Lodge in the background.

Lower tram terminal, with the Cliff Lodge in the background.

Closeup of the Cliff Lodge.

Closeup of the Cliff Lodge.

So even the distinguished architectural photographer Julius Shulman dropped by and took photos, it was that good!

At the top is the Summit at Snowbird, which opened on 26 December 2015, and is the least distinguished structure, resembling a bunker. The views from the balconies and from behind the reflective glass are amazing, but it stands out like a sore thumb on the summit of Hidden Peak. The restaurant and seating is nice, though, serving healthy food with a touch of class and even linen tablecloths! It does provide a necessary stopping point at the junction of the upper tram terminal and the Mineral Basin lift. This “entry column” evokes the concrete architecture of the other buildings, but the materials don’t quite fit in.

View from the Summit at Snowbird, not a bad place to have lunch.

View from the Summit at Snowbird, not a bad place to have lunch.

And the logos and fonts, they evoke the 1970s as well, large and clean, with the Snowbird “triangles” logo imprinted into many of the structures. This is a great 1970s period piece and remains fresh even today.

An excellent page with more info and photos can be found at the Salt Lake Modern website.